Oxidation Thickness Calculator

This calculator determines the thickness of silicon dioxide (SiO2) thermally grown on a pure Silicon wafer in an oxidizing ambient.
The model for thermal oxidation of silicon was pioneered by Deal and Grove in the 1960's. [1] Since that time, other researchers have honed the physics to account for different perturbations or regimes not originally considered by the Deal-Grove Model.
Today, thermal oxidation is perhaps the most important and contolled step in the manufacture of silicon integrated circuits, forming the gate oxide in a field effect transistor, and the tunnel oxide in flash memory devices.
This calculator uses Deal-Grove as the backbone for the calculation, and incorporates the work of other research for more accurate prediction.

To use, go to:

Why the new look?

You may have used the calculator that has resided here since early 2001. This calculator was improved in 2004 but retains all of the functionality of the old one, and a whole lot more. Much of this is described below. The code has been completely re-written in 2013, but the models and results are mostly unchanged.

I liked the old one. What if I want to use that one?

The old Deal-Grove calculator that used to reside here is built in to this calculator. Just select the "use Strict Deal Grove" model option, and un-select the other model options and it will give you the same result as before. It is generally not recommended to do this, but if you want to use the old calculator for legacy reasons, it is maintained for such backward compatibility.

Has the calculator been tested?

Yes, but not for all possible cases. To give some idea of the range, users have reported up to eighteen DAYS of oxidation, with very close agreement. Short oxidations have been run down to a few tens of angstrom with excellent agreement to the Massoud model. Results for thin doped oxides, while not perfect, are better than what's been obtained in advanced process simulators such as SUPREM for the tests we've run.
In addition to published data, we've generated over a thousand data points of our own for modeling. If you have some interesting data you'd like to share, please email me. You can find my full email address when you run the calculator.

How do I use it?

  1. There are two types of calculations you can make: Select this first with the buttons at the top of the page. Time is specified in HH:MM:SS format. Thickness is specified in Angstrom. The appropriate field will become active (time entry or thickness entry) awaiting your input.
  2. Select the following conditions for your run:
  3. Select the Model Options: You can select or exclude certain models from the calculation. The calculator will do its best to determine the correct answer, but it will do so within the constraints that you specify in this section. It will not apply a model that it believes is totally inappropriate. The recommended (and default) settings are to "use Massoud Model if appropriate", and NOT to use Strict Deal Grove, and also to NOT apply doping models.

What's not accounted for in this calculator?

Under what conditions might the calculator have significant error?


[1]B.E. Deal and A.S. Grove, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 3770 (1965).

[2]H.Z. Massoud, et. al, J. Electrochem. Soc. 132, 2685 (1985).

[3]B.E. Deal, J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 576 (1978).

[4]H. Sunami, J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 892 (1978).

[5]E. A. Irene, J. Electrochem. Soc. 120, 1613 (1974).

[6]R. R. Razouk, J. Electrochem. Soc. 128, 2214 (1981).

[7]B.E. Deal and M. Sklar, J. Electrochem. Soc. 112, 430 (1965).

[8]H.Z. Massoud, Ph.D. Dissertation, Stanford Electronics Labs, Tech. Rep. No. G502-1, Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (1983).

[9]E. A. Irene, J. Electrochem. Soc. 125, 1708 (1978).

[10]H. L. Tsai, et. al, J. Electrochem. Soc. 131, 411 (1984).

[11]A.S. Grove, et. al., J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2629 (1964).

Send comments or suggestions to Eric Perozziello (run the calculator to get my email).